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Posts posted by DanO

  1. Layering systems. Plans of usage.


    There are countless ways to create a clothing system. One would need a gear truck to follow you up the hill to have all the possibilities you may want.

    Whatever the system need a plan.

    A plan to stay cool enough. This means a light enough base layer for hiking uphill and when in the sun, or in unexpected warm weather.

    A plan to stay dry enough. This means a way to dry out , usually at camp. One way is to take off wet clothes and put on dry clothes at camp and do it over the next day.by putting back on wet  clothes next morning. Another way is to have a system to dry out clothes via a over capacity in warmth sleeping bag that won't wet out, via a Stephenson's warmlite sleeping bag or a heavy synthetic sleeping bag.

    A plan to hike in the rain, snow, sleet etc. If using a traditional three layer system that often means a single layer on legs and a base layer with hardshell on top. Likely to get wet no matter what, if warm enough just use the hardshell alone, when stopped shake out the water and put on dry clothes. If intermittent light percipitation a soft shell or base layer alone may be used, body heat driving off excess moisture while moving, especially when  hiking uphill.

    A plan to be warm enough. Most often adding another layer to go over legs and a puffy jacket. If carrying a sleeping bag to be the lightest weight, may do away with the puffy.

    A plan to dry out while hiking. That means when the rain let's up a clothing system that will dry out by body warmth. A very breathable puffy, let's say a primaloft puffy, or a pertex pile garment. Or a fleece with a breathable windshirt, or a good quality softshell designed to move water out. For legs a thin breathable layer, most likely hardshell off the legs. I find a thin nylon spandex pant works well in cool to mildly cold weather.

    A plan for a emergeny bivy. A pad and puffy, and a thin sack such as a SOL breathable bivy sack.  Or maybe a blizzard bag, or a bothy bag, or a light tarp with fire starter. Ect. Usually just enough to get through the night and be able to effectively move the next day.

    Whatever the clothing system it is best to have an effective plan for all common situations. 

    If you hike or climb enough,  you will have a unplanned night out, or you will be soaking wet and cold, or you will be too hot, all of these and more adverse situations happen sooner or later.

  2. A few clothing tips. 

    If goose down wets out you have two thin layers of nylon with a couple of frozen feathers inbetween for insulation. That was happening once to me with a pair of goose down mitts, luckly it was a day trip and I was getting close to the car. I suggest primaloft mitts, for any winter conditions put them in the bottom of the pack, someday they will save your fingers. With good fitting mitts and determination one can do moderate ice climbing with them on--most of the time, handy skill when really cold with wind. It is good for the one of the party to have extra gloves or mitts, sooner or later over many climbs or hikes you drop a glove down a hole or over the side etc.

    In high winds and cold need cover to every inch of skin, nice to have liner gloves for very cold.  

    Most guys use goggles in very cold and windy, I find that my sweat freezes inside and can't see. As a alternative or backup use two balacavicas or a ski mask and a balacavica. Put  both on and arrange the fabric overlapping to make eye slits. Works very good and can easily adjust as needed the windy side of face gets the smaller eye slit. This also works in bright sun if you lose the sun glasses. 

    If really cold bring all clothes and leather boots inside sleeping bag. If wet weather and have goose down sleeping bag, may have only a few days before it wets out. Wool drys slower than synthetic, it is harder to dry out wool socks and  gloves verses synthetic. Synthetic socks dry on the feet inside the sleeping bag in a couple hours making the feet cold while drying, then after the feet are dry and warmer. 

    Wool verses synthetic, both warm damp, both not so warm wet, wool dries slower which can be better or worse depending situation. It seems wool gloves are warmer than knit synthetic gloves when wet. Primaloft mitts are the warmest hand wear in my experience. Wool does not smell  so better for long trips in this reguard.  

    Chemical toe warmers work for 6 hours if not have ones left over from last season, dont trust the store. 

    Buy the best fitting boots you can, you can save money with cheaper clothes. Cheaper clothes are plenty good enough, just bulky.  In most cases the first boots should be leather for summer alpine usage. For winter get leather insulated boots, the plastic boots are less useful unless very cold. 

    Dont expect the waterproof breathable to be breathable enough while hiking uphill. In most cases a base layer with a breathable windshirt is all you need while on the move hiking. The puffy, hardshell, softshell, midlayer are most often used less. The wind shirt with base layer combo allows the hiker use the least amount of clothing to stay cooler,dryer and keep more moisture in the body. Of course as it gets colder heavier clothing can be used. You want a breathable windshirt, avoid those with low breathability. 

    A basic self check for breathability is seal your mouth against the fabric and breathe . You can personally check the hype verses reality.



  3. https://andy-kirkpatrick.com/blog/view/antidote_to_grimness


    A article, so less is more. Three different states, one moving hard like uphill hiking, then need a thin breathable set of clothes. Then the stop and go, such as when climbing then need a bit more insulation, often something ventible. Then the standing still puffy to put on when very cold or not moving. Lastly some sort of waterproof to prevent dumping rain washing the heat out of the body. 

    People who sweat little can get away with too much clothing but overheating still slows them down. They also can handle a good breathable hardshell a lot better in terms of not wetting out due to sweat. Water proof breathables or hardshell are not breathable enough very often. A hardshell is likely to be breathable enough for stop and go climbing.

    It is nice to have a system that will dry you out from body heat. Pile and pertex , paramo, fleece with a pertex windshirt, thin nylon pants, etc can work. If a waterproof is left on top then hard to dry out under layers due to not enough wicking and breathability. 

    The thinner and more breathable the base layer the better for not wetting out the base layer.

    Multiple layers saturated with water can be harder to dry out. Layers with not breathable enough material will be harder to dry, wool is harder to dry than synthetic. Wool and fleece are warm when damp, wool and fleece not as warm when wet. 

    It is best have clothes that will not hold much water, so can shake the water out of them or wring water out. Best is synthetic clothing in this reguard, some synthetic materials and clothing items are better than others.

    It seems that surface layers slow drying, ie fewer layers may dry faster.




  4. No matter the clothing system it is best not to overheat and sweat out the layers.

    The best I have found so far is brynje mesh base layer for upper body. For hot weather hiking shorts and mesh t shirt, cold weather a mesh long sleeve shirt with a thin material nylon/spandex pant. One can find fairly inexpensive nylon/spandex pants in regular clothing stores these days.

    If hot weather the nylon/spandex pant can be the overlayer for the legs or use something warmer if needed. I usually carry a wind shirt, or a very light water proof for the next layer. If warm enough and raining I take off the base layer and wear the waterproof alone, likely all vents open, dont sweat out the base layer. The best waterproof is one that won't saturate with water and can shake most water off of it when off. On trail I sometimes  use a 6oz rainO2 shirt, the most breathable material, cheap to buy, but fragile. 

    The base layers and first over layers are the main ones. Often a base layer and maybe wind shirt is all needed while moving.  When stopped then the puffy overlayer, if perfect dry weather one can have goose down, check forecast . Otherwise some sort of synthetic. 

    This is a layering system and works well.

    If i was going to winter hike I may wear the nylon/spandex pant and brynje mesh shirt with or  without the wind shirt. Then have  a montane extreme bib and smock (heavy pertex pile) to throw over when needed. If warm enough to be rainy can use a rainO2 waterproof jacket instead of wind shirt, can size it big enough to go over puffy if needed (really dumping rain). Any light hardshell can serve this pupose.

    I try to stay warm enough and dry as possible. But not always comfortable, a cold wind on the skin through a base layer is not comfortable, but in that way I keep dryer and more moisture inside my body while hiking. Only if getting cold in my body core i throw on another layer while hiking.

    If doing a stop and go activity such as climbing. Then think about a warmer ventible clothing system on upper body. Maybe a base layer with ventible hard shell or wind shirt etc. If even colder maybe a mid layer fleece. 

    If using a pertex pile system with venting, such as one of the buffalo systems smocks. At the correct temp range it can work,  let's say  around 40 degrees f, to something below zero f,  stop and go activity.

    What particular set of clothing is not as mportant as the concepts. 

    Remember the more layers sandwiched without venting, the harder to dry out. A outside hard shell does not breath well so can get wet from sweat. If wearing such then use least under clothing, maybe no base layer if warm enough. If rain stops shake off water from waterproof and put back on your dry base layer. Or if stopped to do a stop and go activity shake out waterproof put on dry base layer and a fleece if needed. 

    One usually gets by with 2 layers on legs and three layers on upper body, if carrying more than this likely carrying too much weight.

    Staying dry and have a way to dry clothing out with body heat if wet is a very good system of clothing and its usage in bad weather.

    A small example, once on a winter hike on mt baker I fell in a creek, about 20 degrees F. The pack and snow shoes had me stuck down on my side in the water for some time. I did have montane pertex pile in the backpack but did not use it. But even though one leg and my side was soaked I was warm enough. I then hiked for about 30 minutes and was bone dry. The nylon spandex pant (only layer for my legs) with thin material will dry out quickly with body heat, same with correct upper body base layer. If your base layer is loaded with sweat when hiking then try to find something better, ie more breathable, thinner material, faster drying etc. Otherwise it is very hard to dry it out with body heat when needed.



    • Like 1

  5. Lately I am into traditional pertex with pile clothing. Pertex is a very breathable skin that is wind/water resistant the pile under is a fleece with bumps that makes a micro climate that draws moisture away from the skin. This sort of clothing works well in varible wettish conditions, cold dry and then wet,  back and forth. The UK and Scotland  has weather that is similar to the cascades and British Columbia so their style and technique for clothing systems I think worth exploring. 

    Pros  of pertex pile, it is simple and  tough, it pulls wetness from the body faster than anything else when generating body heat, it works wet or dry. Very good for crappy weather conditions with rough usage. Think military and SAR usage, also climbing/hikng in rain to snow to hail and back and forth.. Cons, it is more bulky and heavy than fluffy down or synthetic. Cons,  most modern soft shells are close fitting and made of stretchable material which is nice,  however traditional pile is the best for the creation of that dry warm microclimate at the skin ( as far as I know).

    To my thinking there are two basic human body types, one type sweats a lot , the other does not, I tend to sweat a lot no matter if hot or cold while hiking.  I also tend to sleep cold. Some body types sweat little and sleep hot, those people hit the jackpot for alpine ability. 

    In any case I find it is best to use a layering system even with pertex pile. No matter what clothing system or body type you want to start the hike cool to cold. This means a thin layer at the skin, the base layer. So far the best I found is the brynje thermal mesh. Synthetic material in general drys faster than wool so I favor any type of synthetic base layer. Merino wool is very good in cool damp.  conditions.but nothing is very warm when soaking wet. Wool is warm when slightly damp, not so warm when wet and takes a long time to dry. In my experience wet wool gloves and socks are wet in the morning inside the sleeping  bag and wet wool socks chill the feet all night. Synthetic gloves and socks are very cool when drying out in the sleeping bag for a few hours but after dried out are cozy warm. Note, fleece, pile and wool are all warm when damp, but wool drys much slower. Any of these wring and shake out much as possible before trying to dry out.

    Goose down. So far for me goose down is the only practical insulation for a sleeping bag and be able to carry it and be warm. I find in wet conditions with down you may only have a few days before it wets out and useless.  Most trips this is ok as they are of a few days duration. If in very wet conditions then may need a synthetic insulation bag, the greater the wetness and duration of the trip, the greater the need for synthetic. Practically , goose down for a sleeping bag is the best by far for trips for a few days.

    Goose down puffy.   It works very well. It is simple, check the weather forecast, if very low chance of rain for the trip duration, then bring it along. Know that a wet down garment insulates less than zero when soaked out, leaving you a wet cold frozen piece of meat. In the weather forecast if the greater chance of rain bring synthetic. For me if forecast is greater than 20% I lean strongly to synthetic. If I start off in rain I look lovingly toward pile, fleece, or pertex with pile. Good quality synthetic insulation puffies are good but I think pertex pile is better if you know your going to be in the wet.( personal opinion due to faster drying time for good pile or fleece, shake out water then put on). For good weather, goose down, worse weather, synthetic puffy, worst weather good pile and  best fleece.

    Another possible system is a very hard shell with minimal under clothing. Especially  if a sweat little body type, .the key here is have a thin to no base layer and a hard shell that holds little to no moisture. Think very high quality breathable hard shell or non breathable hard shell.  You can basically take it off and shake it dry. The under clothes can be replaced with fresh ones at camp. Just know that it will be harder to dry out with body heat while wearing this type of clothing.

    The worse thing you can do is start off warm, get the clothes soaked with sweat and have several wet layers sandwiched together  unable to draw moisture out, you stay wet and miserible, this can happen even with a high dollar clothing system.,. Ideally you want a system that has you cool  ( even cold on the the surface skin) and  mostly dry when hiking. When stopped, throw on over layer that warms you up and drys you out. That is as good as it gets. If ice climbing (stop and go) you want something more than a base layer but less than a puffy. You warm up when climbing cool down some when belaying, controlling with venting and or a over puffy. 

    More later.

  6. Why my interest in pertex pile? I have been out in winter with wet clothes from sweat and rain. And got very cold and even when moving generating body heat, hard to impossible to dry out. Cold even with a synthetic puffy on. It seems the cold and wetness does not leave even with good quality layers, when it sets in.

    So I bought montane extreme bibs and smock with heavy pile for winter usage, it is heavy and bulky. However with this and a Brooks range bothy bag I figure hypothermia is almost impossible for me in the cascades. That pile really sucks wetness from the body, must experience it to understand.  For me I am sweaty when going uphill, even if cold , so I carry the montane over clothes in the pack until needed.

    However would like to find something a little lighter and hill hiker friendly in weight and bulk.  Less in the pack, more on the body. Thinking of all the options of pile and pertex , buffalo stuff, etc. There are endless possible combos.

  7. https://www.trailspace.com/gear/u.s.-military/ecwcs-gen-ii-brown-bear-jacket/

    Function verses style? The jacket above looks to be all heavy function.

    As far as I know the proper pile is the heavy pile on the inside and smooth face on the outside. In this way the pile points on the inside wick water away and the fuzzy air pockets keep a dry microcliment on the skin, if the hiker is generating heat. The smooth face outside helps move water away , the pile yjacket should be very breathable.  So far I have not found a modern pile only shirt which is climber or hiker orientated, with this type of construction. 

    If I was going to make a pile pertex layering system it would be a wind shirt for walk in, with or without a base layer. Then a separate hooded pile shirt, either micro pile or heavy pile.  

    Then mix and match as you like. Can use/carry either heavy pile shirt or light one as needed. 

    The vent zips of pile shirt and wind shirt should match up. Many possible designs for venting.

    This pertex pile layering system should be good for most conditions while moving in bad weather.  

    I am surprised no one is making this system. Maybe weight savings is not there??

    By the way pertex equlibrium fabric as a wind shirt is very breathable and comfortable on the skin, it as comfortable as a base layer.

  8. Thinking of using my pertex equilibrium windshirt with pile fleece as a homemade pertex pile combo. 

    What I think I want I can't find,  a simple fleece with pile on the inside and smooth surface on the outside. I have a montane extreme smock and it's pile is made in this way and it works very well. I suspect pile on both sides or only on the outside would not work as well moving moisture inside out. 

    Also Is waffle fleece better or worse than pile? Also Dont want any sort of wind blocker fleece. 

    Alternatively I am using brynje mesh thermal top which works very well under the windshirt. Would I be better off to double up on the brynje mesh, if colder, or in more rain ? That seems a lighter option.



  9. Ok I got a Brooks range 4 man bothy bag. Used it some in winter wa state in north cascades. 

    In winter got it out at mt Baker ski area , got in it by myself with very warm clothing  no bivy sack with foam pad, didn't know the temperature.  Cozy warm, i actually dozed a little , for the time i was in there the consedation was very little. Another time i got into it during winter up at church mountain with the partner, it seemed ok enough for emergency overnight for both of us.

    For me it is better than a bivy sack in nasty alpine irainy snowy conditions. It seems much warmer than a bivy sack. With it and very warm clothing a emergeny overnight is doable. Also it is good for breaks in nasty conditions. The only other product that i may consider instead would be a blizzard survival tube or bag. 

    If one is lower down a tarp with fire may be better for a aemergency but getting a fire going is often very difficult

    A 4 man bothy bag for 2 people is a good way to go for emergency overnight shelter in winter alpine conditions with warm clothing. I either carry my bothy bag or a tarp with some sort of bivy sack with fire starter on winter day trips. 

    If a chance of being caught out up high in winter conditions the 4 man bothy bag is the best option for lightweight for two people.

    The Brooks range bothy bag is described as breathable fabric with vents. This seems true to me as the consendation in it didn't seem bad, hardly any. It is hard to find a bothy made with breathable fabric, sadly Brooks range is out of business. If can find a bothy made with breathable fabric with good vents , that is worthwhile for possible overnight.


  10. I was looking at the feathered friends website ,  found the new Tanager sleeping bag. If I was going to do it all over again I likely would get the Tanager, for spring summer fall in the western cascades alpine. In fact with the overstuffed Vireo, I in fact have a bag like the Tanager bag. I favor the longer size to pull myself inside for colder weather. Control warmth with the jacket. I also use a SOL breathable bivy sack, it also works to control warmth. The advantage of no zipper is the lightest weight and bulk in a sleeping bag. Note,  you really should also have a hooded puffy light to heavy depending on temp, most people carry one anyway,  and/or a warm sleeping head cover.






  11. As I understand it, on dry treated rope, the treatment on the surface of the rope wears off with usage on rock,  the dry rock rubs off the treatment. The dry treatment can be very important for alpine climbing , especially ice climbing. Air below freezing temp but the rope gets wet with a drip or water running inside or over ice etc. The rope can turn into a ice encrusted thread.

       Not much reason to have a dry treated rope for dry rock usage, ie most of the treatment rubbed off when you need it. Buy and save your dry treated ropes for those conditions when you may really need it.

  12. I have and like the ff vireo. I am 5ft 10inch tall and got the the longest size so can scrunch inside it totally for colder weather. I have used the ff Helios down jacket with it. I use a tarp and a SOL breathable bivy sack with it. I am a cold sleeper and often sleep around 5 to 7 grand feet summer alpine-for me this works well. I have recently had a few more oz added to the upper half of the bag. For early spring and late fall the bag will likely be too light unless your a very warm sleeper.  I must say that it is my go to bag for summer alpine, I suggest getting the longer size and over stuff the upper half if need more warmth.  In any case you cant go wrong with any ff product.


  13. Just a note, I have been thinking of getting a item or two of new climbing clothing. It is diificult for any one type of gear selection to work for everyone and siituation because every person has a different body type, mindset, type of activities etc.

    I have been thinking of getting a pile pertex jacket for awhile , but for my body type and the bulk of my outdoor activity and what i prefer, i decided on a new synthetic jacket. 

    Why?  I rarely hike in very nasty cold maratime weather if i more so did my next selection would be different. Also I tend to be hot when I hike, and I like to be cool so I have the least amount of clothing while moving. Even in winter in dry weather I often have a single thin layer top and bottom.  If raining or snowing then often two layers. For me pile pertex ( while moving working hard) would be used in the most horrible cold wetish conditions moving uphill or in stop and go situations (pitched climbing) or moving slowly downhill in better weather, but still cold. I still want some lighter pile pertex gear someday but my money is better spent elsewhere at this time.

    Most often these days i go in good or semi good weather I use very light layers while moving and a slingle over layer for camp, stops and for emergency.. Note, I hike nuke hot and sleep ice cold, these days I mostly hike recent years and sometimes do easy scrambles. I dont look for bad weather.

    So what I am thinking of at this point is a  Nunatak PCT jacket. With a waterproof outer fabric, I won't carry a extra water proof most trips depending on forcast. 

    I will size it long and warm for suitable emergency usage. Weight at around a pound, slightly bulky. Part of my sleep system with light down bag.

    The next buy i am thinking of someday is a light pertex pile bib from buffalosystems. Teclite bibs. Which for me should be a upgrade for certain situations for legware. They also should be good for most bad weather.

    Note,  If you sweat a lot goretex can be a sweatbox. If you run cool and sweat little,  goretex can be ok. If you sweat,  pertex (or something simular) may be better in most conditions.


  14. Yeah good pile with a windshirt is the best way to go , fleece is not as good, is fleece good enough???? I dont know,  a wind shirt with fleece is easier and cheaper to find.

    The montane extreme smock and bibs ,  they just keep you warm and dry,  just pulls the

    wetness away. It really works for most nasty conditions, it may start to fail in 

    monsoon rain conditions after awhlie, but a rainshell may fix that.


  15. I dont go out much during nasty cascade weather.  When I do, usually it is a day trip in winter. The worse I dealt with is rain going to snow when going up higher with wind.  Also I have been out a few times in winter in the very cold windy white mountains in the the north east.

    I have found most waterproof breathables in time saturate with water inside out and outside in, if in rain and wet snow long enough. It takes much body heat to dry out saturated clothing.

    I have had my clothing saturated wet and a good synthetic puffy over it all , and feeling very cold,  and very glad to be on a day trip.

    I have found couple of ways to deal with this situation. 

    One way is to use waterproof non breathable outer clothing, or breathable rain gear that does not hold much water inside it .  Hike with minimal under clothes. When at camp. Shake out shell gear and hang up or put away somehow, this shell gear is not saturated , since it is not permable.  Put on warm camp clothes and keep these dry. In morning put on shell gear and start moving and  hiking again to be warm.

    Other way is pile pertex method or (wind shirt with fleece). Even though pile pertex will get wet in time. The pile next to skin will wick away water from the skin to keep you warmish and dryish. At camp it would best to have a OVER rated sleeping bag and a semi breathable (something like goretex in effect)  inner bag to go inside the sleeping bag to prevent saturating the down sleeping bag with water. This will enable you to safely dry yourself out in a few hours. I do not favor wool anything it's too slow to dry out, most any synthetic is good, no wool socks or gloves for me either, they rarely dry out, where as sythetic items are usually dry in a few hours.

    If raining really hard can throw a rain jacket over the pertex. If the rain stops or mild enough body heat can dry out the pile while hiking.

    In any case have a good shelter with a sleeping bag at least 20 degrees over rated for expected tempature , along with a semi breathable membrane on the insiide. The down can pass a slow amount of moisture over time with a warm body inside. One may be able to use a SOL breathable 5oz bivy sack for this usage but I have not tested it. I have used a stephensons warmlite sleeping bag which has this semi breathable inside fabric built in, works very good. Why isn't this copied?? I have been out in my stephensons bag in winter and very wet, After warming up I would fan the extra wetness to the outside out the top of bag and after a few hours be bone dry. The goose down perfectly fine.


    Best to test such things out in a safe situation.  

  16. Great write up.  Some thoughts. 

    Police strength pepper spray can be up to 5 times stronger than bear spray, The gel spray may be better than fogger?

    I like using a wide close cell foam sleeping pad. I set up my pack to carry it on the outside on the side , vertically.   Carried like this it is not so much a pain in brush ,  dont need a ground clothe. 

    If on a budget any larger silnylon tarp works well as a shelter for most mild weather. I have a 10ft square tarp with ultra light lines, 6 stakes , less than 1lb 7oz. Use trecking poles to set up. Use head net and net clothes or regular clothes for bugs. (Note, a larger flat tarp can be used in bad weather with knowledge, can fold it in a pyramid shape, or bring all sides to the ground, or if in snow dig in, etc. If tarp is small,  set up options are less, I suggest a bit larger flat tarp for safety)

    There are good tarp tents and shaped tarps on market, many made in the usa by cottage industry.  Check them out online.  I recently picked up a black diamond beta light tarp shelter for worse weather. 1.5 lb including stakes and guylines for two people, packed size same as water bottle, I shall see how it works.

    Feathered freinds jackets are great. Use mine for good weather forecasts.  If on a budget any lightish jacket will do.  On a budget thin nylon chino stretch pants work very well.

    For just in case rain gear "Rain O2" works great,  but not very tough for brush, however nothing is lighter or more breathable, and they are fairly cheap. I bring the jacket for good weather forecasts, the pants likely too fragile  to bring unless staying on trail.

    Reactor stove is great for melting snow, other wise any quality canister stove works great, a cheap one should work fine if on budget.

    The breathable SOL bivy sacks work great with sleeping bag under a tarp if want aditional protection. Can carry with you when leave base camp.

    Any quality 20 to 30 degree sleeping bag works for summer apline and a bit into fall and spring.

    Geigerrig water bladder system with filter is the best/lightest water system I have found for me.

    Lately I have been exploring pile pertex clothing for truly nasty weather. I have the montane extream smock and bibs, I use them as over clothes for winter , they are heavy and bulky but the the best I have found for drying you out warmth. Too heavy for hiking in , unless very cold.  Im thinking of trying lighter weight pile pertex clothing some day. One could use a wind shirt, and wind pant with fleece or pile thermal under with similar good effect, if on budget.

    Good day !!

  17. If interested, some trail and home remedies for intestine bugs, or food poisoning etc.

    Non herbal tea, green tea is the best, make it strong and hot, keep drinking  until feel better, strong like four tea bags in a cup. (Note: Drink tea like the locals when overseas for your belly. ) Mainly for food poison, but helps for critters.

    Activated charcoal, little capsuls , can find in health food stores, very good for food poisoning or other poisoning, but even helps against the critters. I carry some every hike. NOTE ,  Activated Charcoal will absorb out medications as well.

    For intestine critters certain herbs or herbal tinctures. Primarally Black Walnut hulls, Wormwood and Cloves, take as directed. For critters, not for food poisoning. ( One can take a one time dose of tincture one teaspoon/tablespoon on empty stomach , but likely to get VERY stomach sick from such strong treatment, may do a couple days if feel the need.)

    Stomach or intestine viruses, can try food grade iodine in water and drink. May also work for other bugs,  iodine is used to treat water, same idea but inside your gut. For critters. 

    If you do such treatments suffering likely to be much reduced.  As compaired to doing little to nothing conventinal treatments. Likely to be feeling well in few hours to a day or so, verses much longer.

    Dont forget these treatments or suffer and worse yet unable to move yourself effectivly.


    A most powerful quick acting treatment mainly for food poisoning but will help with critters. Take activated charcoal powder, remove from 5 to 10 capsuls , place into cup. Add in green tea, make it strong, bitter strong, add in boiling hot water, let steep around 5 to 10 minutes stir every now and then .  Cool enough with cold water to be drinkable. Stir and drink this until you feel better, if you puke it up no worry keep drinking, do more cups if needed.  This is not for unknown chemical poisoning but will work well with most anything else. This can take a sick like your dying event, to feeling much better, IF done quick enough.



  18. Pushing one's limits is very personal as my limits these days are "bottom feeder low" compaired to most.  A top climber in form, their limits can be much above the average. In any case fame is fleeting , I personally strive for boring climbing stories and suffer the weight and expense of an inreach. Bad luck with weather or bad luck in general can do in even the most cautious climber or hiker.  Wish for the best... 


  19. I used this setup a lot for the last two summers, late spring to early fall.  Worked well, most of the time did not need the weather protection due to good weather forecasts. The few times the weather was mildly bad it worked great. The nice thing is being in the back country and while looking for a camping spot this kind of set up is a lot more easy to find a place to camp, most of the time.  Uneven ground is no problem the covered space is so large that one can place the center of the tarp on a rocky spot or lumpy area  and have enough of two spots for two people to lay down.  It works pretty well on sloping ground, it works well with the door opening sideways to the orientation you are laying.  Several times I used this setup where it would be very difficult to use a floored tent shelter. It does cover a lot of area, but this has not been a problem to date for me as the sides tend to go over objects.

                 I personally like to use a closed cell foam pad that is fairly large as my pad / ground cover 24" by 70".  One can use a pad inside the bivy sack or a ground cloth of some sort according to personal preference.

            I had only a few slight storms in this setup, once we had a good forecast to do the Ptarmigan Traverse last summer. But Right at the middle we had a mild wind storm of around 30mph winds. We ran out of time and camped on a very rough rock section that was sloping,  impossible to use a tent on that spot, we would have had to camp on snow if had a tent.  We had our heads uphill and the doorway to the side of our sleeping orientation. At that time I had a 8x10 ft tarp.  The wind roared somewhat that night and the tarp flapped like crazy but we were fine...  This type of shelter gives a different experience, which can be interesting in of itself..

  20. A basic two trekking pole setup I use most of time. I usually put the front pole upside down, pole tip up through tie in loop.  Other pole the tip down, the pole up under center of tarp. Depending on weather the outer sides can be up and airy or down low for bad weather. If bad weather try put the open front on other side of the direction of wind. One can drop the open front down low , even down to the ground if weather is really bad and if tarp big enough.  However I mostly use this set up as a fair weather shelter low chance of rain, as normal with most hill walking. But it works great for rain with bivy sack (with milder winds), but take extra care not camp in low areas(flooding). The larger tarp gives extra protection. This setup is far better than a tent when looking for back country campsites. This setup is not for if expecting very bad weather. When leaving camp leave or bring trekking poles as desired.