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skyclimb

High altitude training

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I am heading to Peru in 7 weeks to climb routes up to 22,000 feet. I am curious what you veterans of high altitude technical ascents do to train?

I have been climbing a lot on all mediums and working out a lot, but what have you done that has been successful for high altitude ice and rock?

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For me, a combination of endurance and strength training works. However, everyone adapts to altitude differently. I can not over emphasize the need for proper accimatization, especially since you do not have any prior experience to draw on. Once accimatized, you will probably find you have the same strengths and weaknesses at altitude as you do at lower elevations.

 

The need for endurance is obvious; however, at altitude, heavy packs just kick my ass. Therefore, I spend a lot of time training with heavy loads. Above 15k every pound feels like 2 and about 20k every pound feels like 4 pounds.

 

But heck, you might be one of those super-humans that perform exceptionally well at altitude. Me, I'm the essense of average and rely on training and desire to get me up the big peaks.

 

Good luck - the Great Ranges of the world are incredible places!

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honestly the best training you can do is going to local tacoma mexican taco stands, so you don't get sick when you get there. your digestive system is so lacking resistance to any germs, that most of people visiting get a case of shits.

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Some people say of Messner that his personality has changed after his high altitude climbs, they suspect brain damage due to lack of oxygen, and uses him as a warning example of what can happen when pushing it to hard on extreme altitudes. The famous Pakistani climber, Nazir Sabir who's been climbing with Messner, also says to have introduced Messner to the art of smoking hashish at high altitudes.

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There really isn't a whole bunch you can do living in the PNW. I'd jog your ass to Muir as much possible to just get your snow legs and get some exposure to abit of elevation. People say you lose/gain 1000ft of acclamitzation per day but I believe there is a longer term memory in the body once exposed to higher altitudes, as well.

 

Make sure your breathing/ pressure breathing technique is game on. THat is your biggest asset to getting rid of nearly all altitude symtoms... light headedness...nausea...tunnel vision ect all can usually be rid of be relaxing and refocusing on your breathing for awhile.

 

A good thing about Peru is that it is near the equator and the air is thick as shit compared to other places. It's kind of cool to be at your 14k basecamp and be able to go flyfish for trout...

yellaf.gif

 

What's on the tick list? A group of friends will be there about the same time for a month or so. I know they are hitting Artesonraju but I forget the others.

 

I agree with the watch out for what you eat statement. Be as self contained as possible. I've even fired up my stove and cooked in my hotel rooms at the begining of trips to make sure I stay healthy for the climbing. Make sure you bring a prescription of Cipro in case of the shits, ect. It's the perfect weapon against it. Take it as soon as you get your first gurgle from the intestines and it will shorten it allot. Cipro!!!! Bring it,dude or pitty.gif

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I have heard about cipro from many people, and I will make sure to pick up some of that when I get down there. Thanks for the advise.

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Take Cipro to kill intestinal bugs that you get down there. A course of cipro will usually kill a problem in a few days. The key to success in South America is health. Don't eat anywhere you find suspect...and if you start to get sick, start a course of cipro right away.

 

Technical routes at altitude are no joke. A single pitch of seventy degree ice can take an hour or more depending on your level of acclimatization. It is not uncommon to swing a tool, literally breath for a minute to two, then swing your other tool. These minutes add up and suddenly a route with four technical pitches at an average angle of sixty-five degrees becomes a four to six hour endeavor. Add the time it took to get to the technical portion and suddenly your day is a great deal longer.

 

The moral of this annecdote is that you should not apply Cascade standards to high altitude routes. Plan a great deal more time on the route than you would elsewhere. In additon to this, climb a few things that are not very technical and get used to the lack of air before committing to something more dangerous.

 

There is little that you can do in the PNW to prepare your body for such high altitudes. You're probably already working on your cardio for your trip. Push your cardio training to the limit so that you become used to breathing hard while working hard.

 

Spend at least a week after you get there acclimatizing. Hike, do some non-technical peaks, and hydrate. After five days or so, you should be ready to go up high.

 

Lots of people believe that the air is thicker in South America at altitude than in the northern hemisphere...and maybe there's some truth to that. But I've been above twenty thousand feet in Alaska, Bolivia and Ecuador, and no matter where you are you're worked at those altitudes. Prepare yourself mentally for this ahead of time and you'll be fine.

 

Jason

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I have heard about cipro from many people, and I will make sure to pick up some of that when I get down there. Thanks for the advise.

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Real easy to get a perscription before you leave, and make sure you get the real deal. At the same time you can get Diamox, your Malaria drug of choice, and various other drugs. Well worth your time and $.

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For training: endurance and cardiofitness. Key for me has been following the same advice that eveyone gives. Climb high, sleep low while aclimating. Stay hydrated and well fed.

 

As for the Cipro, it is a good drug. Best thing to do is prevent any sort of digestive problem, not rely on a strong antibiotic. Make sure you (and whoever is making any food you put in your mouth on the climb) wash your hands with soap or use the alcohol-based gels. This will prevent you from infecting yourselves with your own GI bacteria. Also, if you eat in town get food that is served hot, and if you eat eggs make sure they are not runny. Use a good water treatment or drink bottled water in town.

 

I pretty much ruined my chance of success on a climb of Aconcagua back in 2000 because I took Cipro to fight a kidney infection I got from sitting too long on a plane from Tokyo and getting dehydrated a week before I left on the trip. Anyways, the Cipro did it's job by killing the bacteria that infected my kidneys, but it also killed a lot of the bacteria I needed in my gut to properly digest my food. I took my last dose hiking into base camp. My body did not have enough time to recover and I stopped digesting food a day after getting to base camp. No runs or GI infection, but no nutrients getting to my cells. Kinda gross, but what went into my mouth pretty much came out the other end in the same state. I lost 15 pounds in a few days and my trip ended at 18000.

 

Take Cipro if you need it, only if you get a bad case of the runs that last more than a couple days. If you do get the runs, make sure you replinish your fluids with an electrolyte replacement drink. Your immune system is probably equiped to wipe anything out in a couple days. Sometimes people just get a little bout of GI upset from the travel and eating on a different schedule. Popping antibiotics at the first sign of gurgling is probably unnecessary. But, you may want to take a probiotic supplement with you to replenish your GI flora in case you need to take Cipro on the trip. Bartell Drug sells a product called Culturelle that does not need refridgeration.

 

Most importantly, have a great trip and climb safe. And file a TR when you get home. smile.gif

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This guy who climbs a lot also insists on using one of these while sitting around the house watching tv. It works your lungs like the altitude would. I think it's a great idea. You are out of breath in a minute or two, and you can feel how it works.

 

lungthing.jpg

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Be careful, Squid. That thing looks like a combination bong and penis pump. You don't know where that thing has been.

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This guy who climbs a lot also insists on using one of these while sitting around the house watching tv. It works your lungs like the altitude would. I think it's a great idea. You are out of breath in a minute or two, and you can feel how it works.

 

lungthing.jpg

 

Is your friend an RMI guide? I ask because they have some pretty strange ideas about high altitude physiology(pressure breathing yelrotflmao.gif). The device you are showing is an incentive spirometer. It is not meant to be an exercise device for your lungs (actually the lungs themselves can't be exercised, only muscles can be). It is used to keep lungs maximally expanded in hospitalized patients who are spending a lot of time in their beds. The patients are instructed to breath in to get the plunger as high as they can while keeping the little ball on the side between the 2 lines (which does not take much strength). The same thing could be achieved without the spirometer, but by looking at the plunger it helps people motivate. If you suck as hard as you could it may work your respiratory muscles some, but that has very little to do with high altitude physiology. Respiratory muscle endurance is important, but short duration, high resistance training will not have a significant impact on this. Running or riding a bike would be much better. The principle parts of high altitude adaptation involve gas transport from lung to blood, changes in the blood count and oxygen carrying capacity, the ability of the heart to transport the blood and the ability to unload and utilize oxygen in the tissues. The brain is also very important as it controls breathing patterns during sleep which can have a profound impact on high altitude illness/adaptation.

 

The best way to prepare for high altitude is to get into good overall shape and acclimatize at a reasonable rate.

 

If you want to use drugs, acetazolamide can be helpful as it actually speeds acclimatization as opposed to Decadron which does not. However, acetazolamide shouldn't be taken by people with a sulfa allergy, can cause dehydration and (perhaps worst of all) makes your beer taste bad. Personally, I wouldn't recommend drugs unless your time was limited and didn't allow for adequate acclimatization.

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If you take acetazolamide, take just half a tablet a day (cut a 250 mg tablet in half with a knife). The "book" dose is 250 a day but that gives a lot of people dehydration because the drug is a diuretic. I met one climber who swore off acetazolamide because his doctor prescribed 250 twice a day, and he was urinating faster than he could melt snow to rehydate. The drug is working if you feel little tingling sensations in your hands or feet.

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Nick, here's the best i could find as of early 2000. i'm sure there's more current info, but you can use this for some good background. it's a really really boring read however...

 

 

Effects of Altitude on Aerobic Capacity

 

By

Michael Layton

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Athletes and scientists have been studying and putting into practice the effects of altitude on aerobic capacity for years. Athletes have been using altitude as a training tool for years despite conflicting scientific evidence (Gore et al., 1998). Athletes use altitude training to boost aerobic capacity (V02max), perform in endurance events, and boost recovery time at sea level (Dick, 1992; Chapman, & Stray-Gunderson, 1998). Hypoxic exercise (altitude training) may increase the training stimulus that increases the effects of endurance training (Levine, & Stray-Gunderson, 1992). There is less oxygen in the air at altitude (Hellemans, 1998), and VO2max is susceptible to changes in oxygen levels (Saltin, 1996). To understand how altitude affects V02max, one must recognize how the body utilizes oxygen in respect to VO2 max, what physiological changes occur when exercising at altitude, how different models of altitude training effect VO2max, what variables besides altitude effect VO2max, and finally, what recommendations should be made to use altitude to effect VO2max.

Oxygen supply and use are closely linked: training improves the ability to utilize oxygen delivery (Wagner, 1998). Changes in VO2max to exercising are a measure of the cardiovascular system’s adaptation to hypoxia and endurance performance (Chapman, Stray-Gunderson, &Levine, 1998; Favier et al, 1995). VO2max depends on oxygen supply and peripheral oxygen diffusion (Robergs, Quintana, Parker, & Frankel, 1998; Wagener, 1998), and depends on oxygen supply to muscle mitochondria and mitochondrial metabolic capacity (Wagner, 1998). VO2max is determined by mitochondrial metabolic capacity in untrained subjects, and oxygen supply to muscle mitochondria in trained subjects (Wagner, 1998). The oxygen transport chain starts with ventilation and diffusion of the lungs to circulation and blood flow diffusion to the muscle cells, and finally the processing of oxygen by mitochondria (Wagner, 1998). During maximum work, V02 max measures individual work capacity because it reflects working muscles’ oxygen consumption, and the transport and delivery of oxygen to tissues via the cardiovascular system (Frisancho, 1983). Oxygen consumption reaches a maximum even with greater exertion, although until that point, the rate of oxygen consumption increases linearly with the amount of work.

Many positive and negative physiological changes occur at altitude. Hypoxia creates metabolic and musculocardiorespiratory adaptations that affect oxygen transport and utilization (Bailey & Davies, 1997). Negative changes include a V02max decrease with exposure to altitude (Chapman, Stray-Gunderson, & Levine, 1998; Dill, & Adams, 1971; Klausen, Robinson, Micahel, & Myre, 1966; Mizuno et al., 1990; Squires, 1971; Squires, & Buskirk, 1982; Tucker, 1984). The decrease in VO2max at high-altitude ranges from 30%-45% (Cerretelli, 1983). The more altitude, the more decrease in VO2max (Dill & Adams, 1971; Robergs et al., 1998). For each 1000m at altitude, V02max decreases 8% (Favier et al., 1995). The percent decrease in VO2max is greater than the percent decrease in endurance performance that also decreases at altitude (Squires & Buskirk, 1982). Maximum heart rate (HRmax) decreases at altitude (Dick, 1992; Dill & Adams, 1971; Drinkwater, Kramar, Bedi, & Folinsbee, 1982; Klausen et al., 1966; Levine, & Stray-Gunderson, 1997; Saltin, 1996), and resting heart rate increases (Dick, 1992). The HRmax decrease during hypoxia directly affects lung performance (Saltin, 1996), and limits maximum oxygen transport (Drinkwater et al., 1982).

A decrease in HRmax at altitude directly affects VO2max because maximum aerobic power decreases despite an increase in hemoglobin concentration (Saltin, 1996). This is because hemoglobin volume increases while plasma volume decreases, which in turn lowers stroke volume while exercising at altitude (Saltin, 1996). The improved oxygen delivery capacity and trend for normalization of stroke volume is offset by the lower HRmax.(Saltin, 1996). HRmax is lowered because hypoxia alters the balance within the sympathetic system (Saltin, 1996). So the net gain of oxygen delivery to tissues versus the work of heart favors limiting cardiac output (Saltin, 1996).

In addition to decreased Hrmax, the acclimatization pathway and training response pathway decrease total performance at altitude (Chapman, Stray-Gunderson, & Levin, 1998; Chapman, 1998). Arterial O2 saturation (Sa02) decreases (Wofel et al., 1991), and oxygen uptake is lowered (Levine & Stray-Gunderson, 1992). Plasma volume decreases, and may take months to normalize (Bailey & Davies, 1997), and recovery time also increases at altitude (Dick, 1992).

Hypoxia increases demand for iron and may create deficiencies (Bailey & Davies, 1997). There is no increase in red blood cells (RBC) with an iron deficiency (Stray-Gunderson, Hochstein, deLemos, & Levin, 1992). There are decreases of blood flow to skeletal muscles, absolute training intensity, plasma volume, haemopoeisis, and muscle mass (Baliley & Davies, 1997). There are increases in glucogen depletion, chances of acquiring acute mountain sickness, high-altitude pulmonary edema, and high-altitude cerebral edema, and increases in ventilation, dehydration, onset of jet lag, and sunburn potential (Bailey & Davies, 1997). Finally, altitude can suppress the immune system, and increase the amount of free radicals from oxidative stray in the body that destroy membrane integrity, and decrease energy (Bailey & Davies, 1997).

There are some positive physiological changes due to altitude exposure, or hypoxia. There is an increase in RBC volume (Chapman, 1998; Levine & Stray-Gunderson, 1992; Levine & Stray-Gunderson, 1997; Stray-Gunderson, Hochstrein, & Levine, 1993). An increase of erythropoeitin (EPO) at altitude is responsible for the increase in RBC volume, and in turn is the primary reason for the increase in V02max after return to sea level (Chapman, 1998; Chapman, Stray-Gunderson, & Levine, 1998; Levine & Stray-Gunderson, 1997). This increase in oxygen carrying capacity allows for a decrease in cardiac output (since more oxygen is in the blood, less needs to be pumped), which increases peripheral diffusion and O2 extraction, and also improves aerobic power 1% for every 100m above 1,500m (Levine & Stray-Gunderson, 1997). Fatty acid metabolism, hemoglobin volume, capillaries (after years), oxidative enzyme activity, and mitochondrial volume also increase (Bailey & Davies, 1997). Finally, blood lactate levels decrease at altitude (Dill & Adams, 1971; Klausen et al., 1966; Levine & Stray-Gunderson, 1997).

With this knowledge in mind, several different models of altitude training have been studied and used by scientists and athletes respectively. Altitude training improves performance at altitude, but there is conflicting scientific evidence that altitude training effects performance at sea level (Bailey & Davies, 1997). The debate seems to be between whether athletes should train at altitude, or live at altitude and train near sea level.

The case for training at high altitude state that exercising at altitude produces a greater training effect than training at sea level alone (Dill & Adams, 1971; Roskamm et al., 1969). VO2max and hemoglobin volume increase at sea level after altitude training (Dill, 1971; Drinkwater et al, 1982; Horvath, Bedi, Wagner, & Agnew, 1988; Klausen et al, 1966; Rodriguez et al., 1999). In fact, mild altitude is enough to increase RBC volume (Stray-Gunderson et al., 1993), and base training at altitude may increase mitochondrial enzyme activities and maximize peripheral oxygen utilization (Levine & Stray-Gunderson, 1992). However, some studies show VO2max does not change with this train high model (Gore, et al., 1998; Levine & Stray-Gunderson, 1997; Miznuo et al., 1990; Squires & Buskirk, 1982; Tucker et al., 1984).

The benefits of the live high-train low model suggest that the high-low model increases performance more than an equivalent sea-level program (Chapman, Stray-Gunderson, & Levin, 1998; Levine & Stray-Gunderson, 1997). VO2max increases in direct proportion to RBC volume in the study of this model, while a sea-level control did not (Levine & Stray-Gunderson, 1997). Performance increases from 1-4% are gained from the high-low model, which is the same percentage difference in race times of athletes who made the finals at the Atlanta Olympics (Chapman, 1998). Training low may also prevent plasma volume loss, and allows for interval training while maintaining VO2max (Chapman, 1998; Chapman, Stray-Gunderson, & Levin, 1998; Levine & Stray-Gunderson, 1992).

Some reasons why there seems to be conflicting evidence may be due to the variables that affect physiological changes at altitude. A wide variability of individual response to altitude training divides athletes into responders (those who show benefits of altitude training), and non-responders (those who did not benefit from altitude training). The VO2max at sea-level pre-altitude is the same in responders and non-responders (Chapman, 1998), but VO2max decreases at elevations as low as 601m in 50% of elite athletes (Bailey & Davies, 1997; Chapman, 1998; Chapman, Stray-Gunderson, & Levin, 1998). Non-responders show a decrease in EPO and RBC volume because EPO doesn’t pass threshold (the amount of EPO needed) to produce more RBC (Chapman, 1998). Stem cell sensitivity in bone marrow to EPO levels and its breakdown rate could be one difference between responders and non-responders (Chapman, Stray-Gunderson, & Levine, 1998).

Another reason for the difference between responders and non-responders may be a result of genetically inherited traits (Chapman, Stray-Gunderson, & Levine, 1998). The main reason for the difference is manifested through the acclimatization pathway which depends on a hematological adaptation to hypoxia, and a training response pathway which depends on maintenance of interval training velocity and oxygen flux at altitude comparable to sea-level values (Chapman, Stray-Gunderson, & Levine, 1998). Responders have a larger EPO concentration than non-responders, although the hemoglobin increase is the same in both (Chapman Stray-Gunderson, & Levine, 1998). Responders’ hemoglobin increases because the RBC volume increased while the plasma volume decreased, and the non-responders hemoglobin increased because plasma volume decreased and RBC volume did not increase in a study performed on elite athletes (Chapman, Stray-Gunderson, & Levine, 1998).

One factor that influences VO2max response to altitude training is the subjects’ fitness level prior to training. VO2max improves most with subjects with the lowest initial values (Gore et al., 1998). VO2max may decrease with altitude training in subjects with high values (Gore et al., 1998; Mizuno et. al, 1990). Elite athletes (athletes who have superior aerobic endurance, and/or power) are more susceptible to VO2max decrease at altitude (Chapman, Stray-Gunderson, & Levine, 1998). Elite athletes may not be able to increase VO2max at altitude because they are near, or at their physiological limits (Gore et. al., 1998) Over-training may decrease VO2max (Gore et al., 1998).

There are many other variables that might affect the outcome of all the different studies. For instance, VO2max levels at altitude have been shown to be equal among the genders (Drinkwater et al., 1998; Horvath et al., 1988; Levine & Stray-Gunderson, 1997), and it has been shown to be lower in females (Robergs et al., 1998). This conflicting data may be due to one or more of the variable discussed.

Many other variables must be considered while studying altitude’s affect on V02max. Iron levels can also affect results of studies because low iron stores produces a negative hematological response (Chapman, 1998; Chapman, Stray-Gunderson, & Levine, 1998). Disease and testosterone levels have been shown to have a depressive effect on the release of EPO (Chapman, 1998; Gore et al., 1998), and individual differences in peripheral diffusion at altitude may explain why V02max levels differ among studies (Robergs et al., 1998). An increase in anaerobic capacity due to heavy training at altitude could be one of the factors in the increased performance after altitude training (Gore et al., 1998). Testing errors could also be a part of the conflicting study results. From 1956-1997 only 30% of studies used sea-level control groups which makes it difficult to determine if the benefits come from training at altitude or simply the increased training (Bailey & Davies, 1997; Saltin, 1996).

By studying natives of high-altitude areas, scientists hope to discover whether the physiological changes are inherited, acquired developmentally, or developed through altitude training. Scientists found that a decrease in VO2max at altitude is not affected by race (Cerretelli, 1993), and that the VO2max of high-altitude native equals those of sea-level natives (Frisancho, 1983; Garrido et al., 1997; Favier et al., 1995). High-altitude natives have the same muscle capillary and mitchondrial volume density as sea level native (Garrido et al., 1997). Changes from development at altitude, or genetics include larger lung volume (Frisancho, 1983; Lindstedt, 1998), greater utilization of glucose, ventilator efficiency, higher anaerobic threshold (Garrido et al., 1997), thicker muscles of the pulmonary artery (Frisancho, 1983), and an increased pulmonary diffusion capacity and adaptations in structural and metabolic organization of skeletal muscles which causes a more efficient cellular respiration system. Therefore, high-altitude natives may have evolved genetically or developmentally by maximizing metabolism (Favier et al., 1995), and oxygen uptake instead of increasing VO2max directly (Garrido et al., 1997). Additionally, there exists a possibility of a gene that gives high-altitude natives higher Sa02 at birth (Garrido et al, 1997).

By not taking some of these variables into account could have altered the results of certain studies that reported conflicting results (Dill & Adams, 1971; Gore et al., 1997; Mizuno et al., 1990; Robergs et al., 1998; Roskmm et al., 1969; Saltin, 1996).

After understanding how altitude affects VO2max, certain recommendations can be made for athletes deciding to train at altitude. Untrained individuals are unlikely to benefit from altitude training while elite athletes will benefit the most (elite athletes are already near their physiological limit and altitude training could give them an extra benefit, while untrained individuals will benefit from regular sea level training) (Levine & Stray-Gunderson, 1992). For increased performance at altitude, athletes should acclimatize and/or train at altitude (Levine & Stray-Gunderson, 1992). High volume/intensity sessions should not be done at high altitude (Chapman, 1998; Dick, 1992). Athletes need to acclimatize to 2-5 days prior to training (Hellemans, 1998).

For increased performance at sea level, the live high-train low model is suggested (Levine & Stray-Gunderson, 1992). Athletes with high hematological adaptation should live at altitude, and those with poor adaptation should live near sea level (Chapman, 1998; Chapman, Stray-Gunderson, & Levine, 1998). Athletes with an ability to train at altitude should train at altitude, while those with a low ability should train near sea level (Chapman, 1998; Chapman, Stray-Gunderson, & Levine, 1998). Any altitude is appropriate for easy aerobic training (Chapman, 1998).

The recommendations suggesting the altitude at which athletes should live and train differs from source to source. One source shows athletes need to sleep as high as possible without exceeding 15,000’ (Kutt, 1999), while other state much lower altitudes (Chapman, 1998; Levine & Stray-Gunderson, 1992). The amount of hypoxic stimulus may be necessary to release EPO (Chapman, Stray-Gunderson, & Levine, 1998). The elevation of 3000m or less seems to be the idea training altitude (Bailey & Davies, 1997; Chapman, 1998; Dick, 1992; Levine & Stray-Gunderson, 1992)

The longer an athlete stays at altitude, the greater potential for an increase in VO2max (Bailey & Davies, 1997; Frisancho, 1983; Mizuno et al., 1990; Saltin, 1996); however, three weeks is sufficient to gain an increase in performance (Bailey & Davies, 1997; Dick, 1992; Hellemans, 1998). Finally, an athlete will need to decide when to begin training at sea level. Individual differences may determine which days peak performance occurs upon return to sea level (Gore et al., 1998). Days 1 and 2 show an increase in performance (Hellemans, 1998), days +/- 3-10 show a normal or worse performance (Bailey & Davies, 1997; Dick, 1992; Hellemans, 1998), and days +/- 11-24 show another increase in performance (Bailey & Davies, 1997; Dick, 1992; Hellemans, 1998). With these facts in mind athletes and coaches can program a training plan using the effects altitude has on VO2max.

Stating that hypoxia brings on a series of physiological adaptations that affect everyone differently can summarize the effects of altitude on V02 max. These changes are even more apparent when elite athletes use altitude as a training tool to possibly increase their performance. Studies done on these athletes report significantly different results (especially when the studies compare those results while using different training models). By looking at some variables that may have affected these studies, one can possibly determine similarities that exist between the conflicting results. It is imprudent to only look at the positive results of studies done on only one or more training models. It could be dangerous to implement a training program only based on studies whose results coincide with the results an athlete wishes to achieve. It is possible that each different model may correlate with the physiology of each different athlete. Scientists should continue to study each model of altitude training to determine their proper use while keeping athletes and trainers updated on the pros and cons of all aspects of each different model.

 

References

Bailey, D., & Davies, B. (1997). Physiological implications of altitude training for endurance performance at sea level: A review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 31, 183-190.

Cerretelli, R. (1983). Energy metabolism during exercise at altitude. In E. C. Chamberlayne & P.G. Condliffe (Eds.), Adjustment to high altitude (NIH Publication No. 83-2496, pp. 61-64). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Chapman, P. (1998). Optimum utilization of altitude training: The high-low model. Retrieved October 11, 2000 from the World Wide Web: http://www.sportscience.org.nz/ publications/report/report3.html

Chapman, R. F., Stray-Gunderson, J., & Levine, B. D. (1998). Individual variation in response to altitude training. Journal of Applied Physiology, 85, 1448-1456.

Dick, F. W. (1992). Training at altitude in practice. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 13, S203-S205.

Dill, D. B., & Adams, W. C. (1971). Maximal oxygen uptake at sea level and at 3,090-m altitude in high school champion runners. Journal of Applied Physiology, 30, 854-859.

Drinkwater, B. L., Kramar, P. O., Bedi, J. F., & Folinsbee, L. J. (1982). Women at altitude: Cardiovascular responses to hypoxia. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, 53, 472-477.

Favier, R., Spielvogel, H., Desplanches, D., Ferretti, G., Kayser, B., & Hoppeler, H. (1995). Maximal exercise performance in chronic hypoxia and acute normoxia in high-altitude natives. Journal of Applied Physiology, 78, 1868-1874.

Frisancho, R. A. (1983). Developmental components of adaptation to high altitude. In E. C. Chamberlayne & P.G. Condliffe (Eds.), Adjustment to high altitude (NIH Publication No. 83-2496, pp. 27-36). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Garrido, E., Rodas, G., Javierre, C., Segura, R., Estruch, A., & Ventura, J. L. (1997) Cardiorespiratory response to exercise in elite Sherpa climbers transferred to sea level. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 937-942.

Gore, C., Craig, N., Hahn, A., Rice, A., Bourdon, P., Lawrence, S., Walsh, C., Stanef, T., Barnes, P., Parisotto, R., Martin, D., & Payne, D. (1998). Altitude training at 2690m does not increase total haemoglobic mass or sea level V02max in world champion track cyclists. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13, 156-170.

Hellemans, J. (1998). Optimum utilization of altitude training - the high-low model. Retrieved October 11, 2000 from the World Wide Web: http://www.sportscience.org.nz/ publications/report/report10.html

Horvath, S. M., Bedi, J. F., Wagner, J. A., & Agrew, J. (1988). Maximal aerobic capacity at several ambient concentrations of CO at several altitudes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 65, 2696-2708.

Klausen, K., Robinson, S., Micahel, E. D., & Myhre, L. G. (1966). Effect of high-altitude on maximal working capacity. Journal of Applied Physiology, 21, 1191-1194.

Kutt, L. (1999). Altitude training for the new millennium. Retrieved October 11, 2000 from the World Wide Web: http://www.altitudetraining.com/pr4.htm

Levine, B. D., & Stray-Gunderson, J. (1992). A practical approach to altitude training: Where to live and train for optimal performance enhancement. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 13, S209-S212.

Levine, B. D., & Stray-Gunderson, J. (1997). Living high-training low: Effect of moderate altitude acclimatization with low-altitude training on performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 83, 102-112.

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I went to the travel clinic yesterday to get all the travel meds I need for my trip to Peru this summer. The consultation itself cost $35 dollars CDN at the Travel Clinic at 1030 W. Georgia in Vancouver. They prescribed me some Diamox (acetazolamide) and said I should take 1/2 to 1 pill twice a day. They said if I get into trouble I should take 1 to 2 twice a day. She said the Diamox is pretty cheap although I haven't picked up the pills yet. Not sure how much it is for Americans.

 

After all was said and done I had three shots (hep. A, B, yellow fever) and I got some oral medications for typhoid and for cholera (e.coli). She said the cholera medicine will reduce my chances of getting traveller's diarrhea by 50%. I also got some cipro which she also said was good for clearing up bronchial infections. Also, she said I didn't really need the yellow fever shot but for political reasons I need it to enter Brazil (I have a six day lay over in Sao Paulo). She said even in La Paz you don't need the yellow fever. only if you're going right down into the Amazon.

 

I highly recommend the place. The staff were very helpful. Total damage was $285 CDN but I'm sure it'll be worth it just for the diarrhea medicine. cantfocus.gifthumbs_up.gif

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"I suggest going out to the nearest pub and getting completely, and utterly, wasted. Make sure you smoke at least 1 pack of unfiltered Camels. Get the full ashtray, pour a drink in it and then pour the mixture into a water bottle. When you get home (ideally around 3:30am) stick the vile mixture into your freezer. Put on your best gortex and thermal layer. Climb in it. At 5:30am get out, drink (chew?) the mixture and go run the biggest flight of stairs you can find. Run until your heart threatens to explode. Your dehydration caused be the alchohol should adequatlely simulate what you may experience at higher altitudes. Your lung capacity should be sufficiently impaired by the smokes to simulate an oxygen poor enviroment. The freezer episode should adequately replicate a bivy. Drinking the booze/but mixture should simulate your lack of appetite....

Oh - once your finished your workout, go to work (to replicate the long walk out)." - Greg Hamilton

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Aspirin, if you're not allergic to it, is IMO a better alternative than Diamox for prophylactic use. Now if someone gets sick, Diamox it is, as well as get him/her down (the only thing that makes a difference).

 

drC

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Run really fast until you puke then do it again.

Repeat every day for a week then do it twice more each day.

Get your lungs and oxygen transport system working at peak efficiency. I ran steep hills.

This has nothing to do with altitude sickness but WILL get your lungs and heart working well and also increase the number of blood vessels in your legs and diaphram. Get the pain overwith. Start now.

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I've never been to the Pacific Northwest, but I've heard about the RMI guides advocating pressure breathing on Ranier. Can anyone tell me what it's supposed to do? COPD patients breath through pursed lips automatically, to keep their alveoli from collapsing, but I've never heard of a reason that it would help at altitude.

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I think it gives tourists something to think about other than the mind-numbing plodding.

 

Really. I'm serious.

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